This is the first exhibition on the subject ever organized which surveys the phenomenal rise of female portraiture in Florence from c. 1440 to c. 1540. On view in the West Building of the National Gallery of Art from 30 September 2001 through 6 January 2002, the exhibition comprises 47 works, some never before seen in this country, including panel paintings, marble sculptures, medals, and drawings. The works presented are not only rare and beautiful but also offer the opportunity to examine the social role of women during the Renaissance and the evolution of their portraiture.
The Gallery is pleased to present this remarkable exhibition that brings together some of the most
outstanding examples of Florentine portraits of women from the mid-15th and 16th centuries, said Earl
A. Powell III, director, National Gallery of Art. Presented to a large audience for the first time, this
exhibition provides an in-depth look at a time when portraiture expanded beyond rulers and their
consorts to celebrate the beauty and virtue of merchant class women.
Renaissance panel portraits, depicting women independent from their husbands, were almost exclusively
produced in Florence. This exhibition brings together all of the most significant examples of the genre,
with the exception of a few panel paintings that could not safely travel. The works are presented in loose
chronological order and in subgroups by medium.
In addition to panel portraits, there are a smaller number of medals, drawings, and marble busts.
Florentine artists that are represented include Filippo Lippi, Botticelli, Verrocchio, Leonardo, Domenico
Ghirlandaio, and Bronzino. Works on display by masters such as Pisanello, Rogier van der Weyden,
and Jacometto Veneziano provide further insight into the development of female portraiture outside
Two major themes are highlighted in this exhibition--virtue and beauty as they relate to female
portraiture, and the broad shift from the aloof painted profile to the more communicative three-quarter or
Ruler Portraits: Independent portraits of women were rare prior to the mid-15th century. They often
depicted a prospective partner for a royal or noble marriage. More common for the time were ruler
portraits depicting both husband and wife. These portraits were likely executed in the traditional profile
view because of its association with ancient coins and medallions. Examples of this portrait type can be
seen in the beginning of this exhibition.
Early Florentine Profiles: As the 15th century progressed, portraits of females, independent of men,
increased in popularity. Filippo Lippi created portraits of women that were the first of their kind in
Renaissance Florence. The exhibition features his two surviving masterpieces of the genre, Woman
with a Man at a Window (c. 1438/1444), and Profile Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1450-1455).
Both works depict the sitter facing left, establishing the standard profile type for portraying Florentine
women. An additional early Florentine profile in the exhibition, A Young Lady of Fashion (c.
1460/1465), is attributed to Paolo Uccello and exemplifies the mid-15th century treatment of female
portraits in which the sitters individuality is suppressed in favor of the social ideals for which she stands.
Medals: Portrait medals, reflecting the ancient tradition of commemorative medallions and coins,
flourished in the courts of northern Italy. Representations of female sitters, mostly the daughters and
wives of rulers, were common. Pisanello (Antonio Pisano), whose medal Cecilia Gonzaga (1447) can
be seen in the exhibition, is credited with inventing this art form. The practice of medals reached Florence
in the 1470s. One of the most graceful of all the Florentine medals created is on view, Giovanna degli
Albizzi Tornabuoni (c. 1486), attributed to NiccolÚ Fiorentino. It can be compared to Domenico
Ghirlandaios portrait of the same sitter, also in the exhibition.
Leonardo: This exhibition includes the only portrait by Leonardo da Vinci in the Western Hemisphere,
Ginevra de Benci (c. 1474-1478). The front side depicts a simply dressed woman in a landscape, while
the reverse depicts a wreath of laurel and palm encircling a sprig of juniper. A scroll, entwined around the
plants, bears the Latin inscription Beauty Adorns Virtue, exemplifying a major theme of the exhibition.
Ginevras portrait was shortened and may have originally included her hands. Leonardos Study of
Hands (c. 1474), on view, was used to reconstruct the possible original format of the painting.
Breaking with the Florentine tradition of the bust-length profile, Leonardo was influenced by
Verrocchios Lady with a Bunch of Flowers (c. 1475–1480), the first 15th century sculptural portrait to
show the sitter in half-length with arms and hands. Verrocchios bust is here reunited with Leonardos
portrait for the first time since they were created in Florence more than 500 years ago.
Northern Analogues: Several northern European works in this exhibition are included for comparison.
An especially beautiful example is Rogier van der Weydens Portrait of a Lady (c. 1460) in which he
abandons the traditional profile and depicts the sitter in three-quarter view. The artist also utilizes a
half-length format, allowing him to include the sitters hands in a pose which captures the dignity and
modesty of the lady. A pair of devotional panels by Petrus Christus, Portrait of a Male Donor (c.
1455) and Portrait of a Female Donor (c. 1455), also utilize the more progressive three-quarter view
and demonstrate the growing international character of 15th century portraiture in northern Europe and
Botticelli Group: The exhibition includes four works by Sandro Botticelli. The earliest, Woman at a
Window (Smeralda BrandiniNULL) (c. 1470/1475), depicts the sitter in informal dress and hairstyle
standing before a window. In an attempt to convey the physical and psychological presence of his sitter,
Botticelli, like Leonardo, has departed from the more traditional profile in favor of the three-quarter view.
His portrait Young Woman (Simonetta VespucciNULL) in Mythological Guise (c. 1480/1485) appears to
portray a legendary beauty who tragically died young. Her features—golden tresses, partly loose and
partly braided, and pearly white skin, reflect the ideal type of female beauty for the time. The Botticelli
group also contains two striking male portraits, Giuliano de Medici (c. 1478/1480) and Young Man
Holding a Medallion (c. 1485), that are both related to the female portraits.
Ghirlandaio Group: Like Leonardo and Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio was committed to the
three-quarter view, which he used for the Portrait of a Lady (c. 1480/1490), and the Portrait of a
Young Man (c. 1490), part of a diptych portrait which also includes a female in profile. Ghirlandaio,
however, retained the traditional profile view for what is perhaps the most admired and discussed of all
the Florentine portraits, his Giovanna degli Albizzi Tornabuoni (c. 1488/1490). This portrait repeats
the profile of the same sitter in a fresco scene painted by the artist in the Tornabuoni Chapel of the
Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. Both likenesses are posthumous, representing the sitter after
her tragic death in childbirth. This special circumstance may explain Ghirlandaios departure from the
Life Drawings: Renaissance portraits were not direct likenesses completed in the sitters presence. They
involved life studies that were made in preparation of the painted portrait. Recording the subjects
physical features, such drawings were more likely to capture the sitters actual likeness than the
completed, idealized painted portrait. Life drawings in this exhibition include Pietro Peruginos Bust of
a Young Woman (c. 1480/1490), Domenico Ghirlandaios Head of a Woman (c. 1486/1490), and
Raphaels Young Woman in Profile (c. 1504).
Early 16th Century: By the early 16th century the style for portraits of women had evolved. The
Renaissance concept of virtuous beauty remained the same but the three-quarter view, established by
Leonardos Ginevra de Benci (c. 1474-1478), and the frontal view, together with a larger format, now
became the standard for female portaiture. Particularly imposing examples of this new type in the
exhibition include Giuliano Bugiardinis Portrait of a Lady (La Monaca) (c. 1516) with its painted
cover, and Ridolfo Ghirlandaios Lucrezia Sommaria (c. 1530-1532). Agnolo Bronzinos portraits,
Portrait of a Lady (c. 1533) and A Young Woman and Her Little Boy (c. 1540), both reflect a new
type of aristocratic portraiture emphasizing the dignified demeanor and elegant dress of the sitters that
would be favored in courts throughout Europe.
Leonardo da Vinci
Ginevra de Benci, c. 1474
Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund