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Important Art Historical Movement Related To Modern Photography

Pictorialism was a photographic term used to describe images that emphasized the artistic quality of the photograph rather than the scene it depicted. The movement’s primary aim was to bring photography into the fine art realm. Also concerned with aesthetics and impact, Pictorialists sought to produce images that were not solely about the objects in front of the camera. Techniques used by these photographers to create a more painterly effect included combination printing, focus, and manipulation of the negative.

Modernism is a term used to describe the style and theory of art from the period beginning in late 19th century and lasting into the mid 20th century. The modernist movement is closely associated with the term modern art, both characterized by a departure from emphasis on literal representation. With invention of photography, the realistic approach to painting and sculpture became unnecessary, thus artists began searching for new ways of visualizing and thinking about the nature, materials and function of art.

Modernism rejects tradition and advocated a return to the basic fundamentals of art. Artists embraced their newfound freedom of expression, experimentation, and radicalism. They believed that art should stem from color and form and not from depiction of the natural world. Paul Cezanne is often considered the "Father of Modernism."

The Hyper-realism movement originated in the late sixties and early seventies when artists began producing paintings that appeared to be photographs. In painting, Hyper-realism is synonymous to Photo-Realism. Also know as Superrealism, the movement was most popular in the United States but spread to some parts of Western Europe. In the sculpture medium, artist often used casts of the human figure to create true-to-form works.